analisis filsafat, Analisis Politik, Islamic Article

Islamic Democracy Society

Many observers assess that before the end of twenty century is democracy period that is most promising in modern civilization history. The assessment do not be relied on a prophetic reason, as thesis of Fukuyama, that democracy are tangent-point of evolution journey of human being ideology and final form of governance, but more on the fact that since two last a decay of twenty century, many States transform to become Democratic country. [1]

In one of researches which is very influential, The Third Wave: Democracy In The Last Twenty Century, Samuel P. Huntington tell interesting data that from 30 states which transit to democracy in spanning time 1974-1992, for about three a quarter predominated by nations that its resident majorities believe in Catholic. Including in it are a number of State Europe South (Spain, Portugal, Greek), Latin America (Brazil, Argentina, Chile) Europe East (Czechoslovakia, Rumania, Poland), African (Botswana) and Asia (Philippine). According to Huntington, what is going on in waving growth of Democracy like this is catholic waving. [2]


History of Democracy

Historically, democracy has expanded since ancient Greek epoch (300-400 AD). Democracy attends as result of from process dialogued by citizen philosophy of city Athena state which has strong tradition in philosophy. At the time, democracy was practiced as governance systems which are all citizen in it, especially woman clan, do not have political rights. There was no dissociation of power at the time. All functionaries hold responsible fully to people assembly that act to control various executive, Judicative and of legislative at the same time. [3]

On the following journey, modern democracy ideas expand along with clarification ideas appearance of tradition of renaissance started at sixteen century. New ideas are such as Secularism that released by Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527), Social Contract by Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), State Constitution, Liberalism and Dissociation of power by John Locke ( 1632-1704) which completed by Montesquieu ( 1689-1755) and Rousseau ( 1712-1778). The ideas basically represent form of intellectual respond to absolute monarchy in the end of Middle Ages replacing power of church. Modern democracy, in the form now, is started since independence of America (USA) at 1776 and appearance of France revolution at 1779. [4]

Etymologically, democracy consists of two words of Greek, that are demos meaning people and cretein or cratos meaning power or sovereignty. So, etymologically sovereignty in governance state is on people hand, the highest power is in people decision, people in power, and power by people.[5] In democracy there are three main points about relationship between government and people. First, Government of the People. It means that the government legitimate depended on people society. If the government doesn’t get the social agreement from people it means that the government illegitimate. Second, Government by the people. It means that the government must perform the legitimating people. And the control is from social people not from state. State control society, not social control over state.[6] Third, Government for the People. It means that the government must work for people. The government must use the people legitimate to peaceful society.[7] No alternative choice except that.

Meanwhile, term of democracy is highly varied. According To Joseph A. Schmeter, the democracy method is that institutional arrangement for arriving at political decisions in which individual acquire the power to decide by means of a competitive struggle for people vote. [8] Sidney Hook said, democracy is for of government in which the major decisions of government rest directly or indirectly on the freely give consent of the majority of the adult governed.[9]

There are many kinds of democracy one of them is Direct democracy is a political system where the citizens vote on all major policy decisions. It is called direct because, in the classical forms, there are no intermediaries or representatives.

            Second, Representative democracy is so named because the people select representatives to a governing body. Representatives may be chosen by the electorate as a whole (as in many proportional systems) or represent a particular district or constituency), with some systems using a combination of the two. Some representative democracies also incorporate some elements of direct democracy, such as referenda.

           Third, Liberal Democracy. is a representative democracy (with free and fair elections) along with the protection of minorities, the rule of law, a separation of powers, and protection of liberties (thus the name liberal) of speech, assembly, religion, and property.

            Conversely, an illiberal democracy is one where the protections that form a liberal democracy are either nonexistent, or not enforced. The experience in some post-Soviet states drew attention to the phenomenon, although it is not of recent origin. Napoleon for example used plebiscites to ratify his imperial decisions.

The meaning of democracy as the base of societal life has the meaning that people giving the provisions in the problem of hitting, including in assessing policy of State. The state that embraces democracy system is State carried out pursuant and willingness of people. In the other word, democracy means State that runs on approval people.

But, in practice, democracy is far away from an ideal. Many States confess democratic, but authoritarian attitude still many happened. America that becomes champion of democracy also conducts same thing. American Invasion to Iraq has smeared democracy reality. America can not be made as Democratic country byword. Finally, many Islamic States, especially in the Middle East, are anti to democracy.


Islam and Democracy

If it is related to Islam, actually democracy is not in contrary. Even there are many base principals equality in it. For example, tolerance, [10] esteeming each other and respecting different idea. According to Nur Kholis Majid, tolerance is problem teaching and obligation to practice it. Even tolerance has become important shares of religion. Allah said: Lakum Dinukum Waliya Din (For you your religion, for me my Religion). [11]

Second, Muakhoh or brotherhood, that is developing chummy friendship relation and helping each other in kindliness. Islam assumes the believers as brothers. “Substantively, the believers are brothers”. [12]

Third, Tying Believe is as the base of human being relation. There are many kinds of tying able to join society become one. Society teaming is according to tribe, national, State and civic. Islam make tying believe as strongest base that is able to bind society in is harmonious, though not prohibit other tying form as long as not contrary with religion teaching.

Fourth, Love is as society foundation of Islam, [13] society of Islam is built above love and helping each other. In a Hadits mentioned: imagery of mukmin, in love, love of saying, contiguity of their relation, like one body. If there is ill legs or hands, hence from head to foot respond with fever and alertness,” (HR. Bukhary)

Fifth, estate does not determine degree. [14] Islam becomes big because of blessing struggle of prophet and all of his friends without reference to impecunious and rich. Altogether coalesce for the greatness of Islam. Islam prohibits class difference in society, even Islam build brotherhood between rich man and poor man.

From here, we will comprehend that Islam basically does not oppose against democracy. Event thought democracy does not appose with Islam, but there are many weakness of democracy:

  • Democracy is not more efficient in economic side than another system. Example: We must spend much money to hold big democracy project, like general election.
  • Democracy is not more efficient in administration. Because in this system there is no authority, just social control. Example:
  • Democracy can not make a good and stability situation. There is no agreement in the law, because they see that democracy is a freedom in everything.
  • Democracy can not make a transparency in many aspects, and the important aspect is in economical aspect. In fact, the principle of democracy theory is the transparency between government and citizens in many aspects.

Those weakness run to one cases, it is trust crisis from public. And the solution from this problem is: Make transparency all many aspects in our live. We must come back the meaning of democracy, freedom expression should be followed by social responsibility. If there are no stability in social structure and no trust which each other, don’t mention democracy as the best political system.

After we know that democracy as according to Islam, so we have to practice it in order to release Islamic Democracy society.


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